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    Biohacking Water: The Ultimate Guide to Optimising Hydration

    Biohacking Water: The Ultimate Guide to Optimising Hydration
    June 29, 2023 Vitality Pro

    Biohacking Water: The Ultimate Guide to Optimising Hydration for Enhanced Health and Performance

    Proper hydration is absolutely essential for the health of every human being on Earth. The human body—and all mammalian bodies for that matter)—requires water to carry out all of its most critical processes, maintain optimal blood volumes, and keep its cells running efficiently. 

    While every body needs water to function, optimal hydration is especially important for competitive sports-people and athletes. According to Dr Jack Spittler, UCHealth A.F. Williams Family Medicine Clinic’s resident Family Medicine and Sports Medicine specialist, physical activity depletes the body’s water and electrolyte reserves through sweating and the burning of stored calories. It thus makes sense that athletes can improve their performance and stamina by consuming significantly more calories and fluid than more sedentary people require.

    In order to maintain optimal levels of hydration, you need to rehydrate at the right times and using the right fluids. However, there is plenty of conjecture over how to rehydrate most effectively. Some experts advise that you rely on your own thirst signals, and others recommend drinking specific volumes of fluids at certain times of the day. Dr Spittler advises that instead of searching for a one sizes fits all strategy, you should instead build your own personalized hydration regime that meets your needs and optimizes your own levels of health and wellbeing.

    The Importance of Water in the Human Body

    Information from the Mayo Clinic confirms that drinking enough fluids does far more than simply quench your thirst. Having optimal levels of hydration is crucial for keeping your body functioning well and performing at its best, as well as for maintaining your blood volume and keeping your cells supplied with oxygen.

    Virtually all of the human body’s major systems rely on water to function. This means that we require water to survive. Water makes up roughly 60% of the average person’s body weight, and maintaining this level can improve almost every aspect of your health.

    In the body, water works to regulate body temperatures, keep the tissues, eyes, mouth and nose moist, and protect organs and muscles. It also lubricates the joints, carries essential oxygen and nutrients to tissues and cells, and assists the body in flushing out toxins through the liver and kidneys. Concurrently, it dissolves nutrients and minerals to make them more easily accessible to cells in the body. 

    The Science of Water: Understanding H2O

    Water, or H2O, is a colourless, odourless, and completely transparent chemical which forms water bodies across the crust of planet Earth. This fluid is vital in sustaining life, and sustains plants, mammals, fungi, microbial populations, and almost all other forms of life in the world. Additionally, 71% of the Earth’s surface comprises of water in the forms of lakes, rivers, streams, dams, seas and oceans.

    Water consists of two hydrogen atoms bonded to a single oxygen atom, hence its scientific name of H2O. These atoms are held together with covalent bonds. H2O is a universal solvent as it can dissolve and erode all substances from sugar, salts, gasses and acids to rock deposits and metals. This property is foundational to the efficacy of human blood, in which nutrients and minerals must dissolve in water before they’re transported throughout the body.

    The Unique Properties of Water

    Water has a number of unique and interesting properties as a chemical substance. It is completely tasteless and colourless. And, when compared to similar liquids, it has a high surface tension, rate of thermal conductivity, and specific heat. 

    As mentioned above, water is a universal solvent, which allows for other substances to be fully dissolved in it. It has the ability to form azeotropes with other solvents and offers a low electrical conductivity rate. This rate can increase by infusing ionic substances that share ions in the aqueous phase to carry a charge. 

    Water can also exist in three states of matter: 

    • Solid
    • Liquid
    • Gas

    In the solid phase of ice, water will freeze at 0 degrees Celsius. In its liquid state, water comprises the majority of the Earth’s surface, and is essential for supporting biotic life. The final state, gas or water vapour, is created when water boils to 100 degrees Celsius or higher. 

    How Water Functions in the Body

    Water has a variety of functions in the human body, most of which are mandatory for our survival. 

    Firstly, water assists in regulating our body temperature. When your core temperature rises above its usual level, this places stress on the body, which can hinder its energy systems from operating optimally. This can negatively impact both your performance and your ability to recover after injury or strenuous activity.

    Secondly, water assists in regulating your blood pressure and keeping your heart rate at a steady pace. In this way, it plays a vital role in managing stress levels in the body during activity, training, and recovery. Too much physical stress can create inflammation and hinder physical processes involved with both recovery and performance. 

    Thirdly, water assists with the transportation of essential nutrients throughout the body, including proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals, and trace elements. These fluids also help in removing metabolic waste produced during cell functioning and levels of intense physical activity.

    Water Quality

    The World Health Organization and other leading health authorities specify strict standards for human drinking water. Drinking water is water suitable for human consumption. It’s also known as potable water, which is safe to use for the preparation and cooking of food.

    Water authorities look at qualities such as: 

    • Colour
    • Turbidity
    • pH level
    • Odour
    • Taste
    • Hardness
    • Total Dissolved Solids (TDS)
    • Total Suspended Solids (TSS) 

    Chlorine, sulfate, nitrate, alkalinity, zinc, and fluoride levels are assessed too when determining whether or not water is safe for human consumption.

    Knowing your water sources and the quality of the water they provide you with is essential when looking to optimise your hydration levels. 

    Types of Water Sources 

    These are the most common types of water sources available to the public, and how they compare to one another:

    • Municipal sources – Most urban areas and their residents rely on municipal drinking water. This water is treated by specialised waterworks and waste management operations to ensure that it is safe for human consumption. Governments adhere to strict quality control standards at all water treatment plants to maintain a high-quality standard and ultra-low contaminant levels.
    • Wells and boreholes – These are usually considered to be private water sources, although they can be used for limited public use as well. Although many private water sources are safe to drink most of the time, some serious illnesses can be transmitted through contaminated boreholes and wells. These sources need to be properly maintained, protected and treated to keep the water supply safe and fit for human drinking needs.
    • Springs – Spring water is naturally filtered under the ground, where it lies in aquifers or below the Earth’s natural water table. This water may undergo some extra treatment before it is bottled. However, it is usually safe and healthy to consume, as it has been stored well away from potential sources of contamination.

    Common Contaminants in Drinking Water

    According to Water Defense, water that contains certain key contaminants can be unfit to drink or to prepare food with. The organisation cites the most common water contaminants as physical impurities like:

    • Rocks, plant matter, silt and sediment 
    • Chemical pollutants like arsenic, nitrogen and toxins that are produced by pathogens 
    • Biological contaminants like micro-organisms and microbes
    • Radiological pollutants like cesium and uranium

    Additionally, iron, lead, arsenic, copper, Trihalomethanes (THMs), phosphorus, nitrogen, pesticides and herbicides, giardia, E.coli, and fluoride are often found in water sources – even, in some cases, in those which have been treated. Agricultural chemicals can also leach into tap water supplies in rural or agricultural areas. Tap water is tested regularly for all of these contaminants. But unfortunately, it does still contain many of them at low concentrations.

    Water Filtration 

    There are many reasons to consider filtering your drinking water to optimise your health and hydration levels. Even the best water departments cannot produce 100% pure, clean drinking water all the time. Plus, the EPA does not regulate all water contaminants, which means that you may consume many unseen pollutants without knowing it.

    Even if your municipal water is exceptionally clean, the pipes supplying it to your home may not be. This poses a risk of contamination. Water filtration systems are designed to filter out a far wider range of common pollutants, helping to protect your health and giving you access to far cleaner, purer water.

    The Different Types of Filtration Systems          

    These are the most common types of water filtration systems that you can install in your home or workplace:

    • Point of use filters. These filters are gravity-fed containers or pitchers that filter the water using built-in filtration elements before allowing you to pour out pure drinking water.
    • Under sink filters. These solutions attach to your cold water line and provide filtered drinking water through a dedicated tap installed alongside your original taps. These filters can come with or without reverse osmosis filters, and need to be installed by a plumber.
    • Whole house filters. These filters connect straight to your home’s water line and filter your entire house’s water supply. The systems have a high rate of water flow, so they may not remove as many contaminants as point of use systems. Whole house filters must be installed by an accredited plumber.

    Types of Water Filters

    How do water filters work, and how many different varieties are on the market in 2023? There are a few different types of water filters available today that use different mechanisms to produce pure drinking water. They include:

    • Mechanical filters. These filters exert a physical barrier against pollutants like dirt, sediment, minerals, and plant material. Ceramic filters remove contaminants of many different sizes, including pathogens, while mesh filters trap suspended contaminants and allow clean water to pass through.
    • Absorption filters. These filters, which include activated charcoal block filters and granular activated carbon filters, absorb and store contaminants in specialised pores. They have large surface areas and pore sizes of around 5-10 microns to trap contaminants of all sizes.
    • Reverse Osmosis systems. RO filters are ultra-filtration membrane systems using a special membrane to filter contaminated water. The membrane pore size of a reverse osmosis system is around 0.0001 microns, which removes virtually all pollutants from your water.
    • UV purification filters. These systems treat drinking water with ultraviolet light, damaging the DNA of pathogens and micro-organisms and preventing them from contaminating water supplies. These filters are usually used as last-stage filters in whole house filtration rigs.
    • Distillation systems. Water distillation rigs work by boiling water to the point of evaporation, and then condensing the evaporated water into pure drinking water in a separate tank, leaving contaminants behind. These systems are usually sold as counter-top units that rely on a constant electricity supply.
    • Mineralising filters. These filters are designed to add minerals to drinking water using mineral beads or calcite. Many RO systems use mineralisation filters to add back the minerals lost during the reverse osmosis process. Some standalone water pitchers also use mineralising filters to improve the taste of the water.

    Water Enhancement Techniques

    Water can be enhanced in a number of different ways, with the goal of creating pure, mineral-rich water that optimises your health.

    1: Mineralisation: Restoring Essential Minerals

    Many water filtration processes, including reverse osmosis, strip away some of the water’s mineral content. These minerals are critical for human health and longevity, but they need to be present in optimal concentrations for best results. 

    According to an article by The Water Geeks, the World Health Organization has even cautioned against drinking reverse osmosis water as it has a clear adverse effect on both humans and animals. The article notes that as much as 60-70% of water’s mineral content is removed during the reverse osmosis process. These minerals include magnesium, calcium, and important trace minerals like selenium, zinc, copper, fluoride, iron, and manganese. 

    There are a few different ways to remineralise filtered water and ensure that it contains all the minerals and trace elements needed to support your wellbeing. You can add a small amount of a mineral-rich salt like Himalayan pink salt; use store-bought mineral drops which are added manually to drinking water; or use a water pitcher with a remineralising filter built into its system.

    2: Alkaline Water: Debunking Myths and Uncovering Benefits

    Healthline notes that alkaline water is less acidic than traditional drinking water, and it contains a range of alkaline minerals. Alkaline water has a high pH of 8 or 9 compared to a pH of 7 for tap water. It’s usually infused with negative oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), which provides a higher antioxidant potential. 

    Some proponents of alkaline water believe that it can help to reduce acid levels in the body, boost the immune system, and prevent certain chronic diseases. While research for these effects is limited, studies have found some benefit to drinking alkaline water. A study published in 2016 on 100 people found a notable difference in blood viscosity levels after the study participants consumed alkaline drinking water compared to traditional water after a workout. This suggests that alkaline water could assist in the proper functioning of the cardiovascular system after strenuous activity. 

    The research available on the health benefits of alkalised water is limited to a few small studies. More research is needed to assess the effects of alkaline water on the human body. But in the meantime, the data shows that alkalised water is perfectly safe to consume and exerts no negative effects.

    3: Structured Water: The Science and Benefits

    Structured water, often also referred to as magnetised water or hexagonal water, is water with a molecular structure that has been claimed to have been altered to form hexagonal-shaped clusters. Its proponents note that structured water is similar in nature to water that has not been polluted by human activity, and believe that it is a healthier alternative to filtered or tap water. Structured water is believed to be found in molten glaciers, mountain springs, forest rivers, and other uncontaminated sources of water. 

    Additionally, some also believe that structured water can be produced using UV lights, natural energy and heat sources like sunlight, or by using a process known as ‘vortexing’ to magnetise the water. Others store their drinking water in glass bottles containing gemstones or crystals.

    To date, there is no high-quality research available on the validity or efficacy of structured water. Proponents cite a 2013 study on magnetised water, which suggests that it can reduce blood and liver DNA damage and lower blood glucose levels in rats. But the study was small and the results have yet to be replicated in human studies.

    4: Hydrogen-Rich Water: The Power of Molecular Hydrogen

    Hydrogen-rich water is another popular water trend that promises to improve your health and well-being. This water is essentially pure water with additional hydrogen molecules added to it. It’s believed to reduce inflammation, enhance athletic performance, and even assist in slowing the process of ageing. 

    There is limited scientific evidence to suggest that hydrogen water can indeed benefit your health. In one 8-week study of 49 participants receiving radiation therapy for cancer of the liver, half of the participants drank 1,500ml to 2,000ml of hydrogen-rich water per day. By the end of the study, those who drank the hydrogen water displayed lower levels of hydroperoxide (a marker that indicates oxidative stress) and showed higher antioxidant activity after treatment than the members of the control group. 

    Another 10-week study observed 20 participants with metabolic syndrome. The participants drank a liter of hydrogen-rich water per day. At the end of the study, they displayed significant reductions in LDL cholesterol, an increase in HDL cholesterol levels, higher antioxidant levels, and a reduction in inflammation markers like TNF-α. 

    Store bought hydrogen water can be expensive, with some popular retailers selling a 30-pack of 8 ounce cans for around $90. You can, however, create your own hydrogen water at home by purchasing hydrogen tables at health food stores or online, which claim to infuse the water with hydrogen. Molecular hydrogen water generators can also be bought for personal use, which are ideal for long term usage compared to tablets, which are better for on-the-go use.

    5: Deuterium-Depleted Water

    All water naturally contains deuterium, which comes in the form of an isotope of hydrogen that contains both a proton and a neutron in the nucleus of the atom. When deuterium bonds with oxygen in water, it creates ‘heavy water’, or D2O, which may interfere with the transfer and storage of information. Deuterium-depleted water is thus theorised to have an improved capacity to transmit and store information, according to Dancing with Water

    According to Dr Frank Yap at One Day MD, there is scientific evidence to suggest that deuterium-depleted water can enhance metabolism and energy production, improve immune function, support the body’s detoxification pathways, and improve systemic antioxidant levels. One Hungarian study even found that the water exerted promising antitumor effects on rat subjects. 

    However, Dr Yap notes that manufacturers’ claims about the water being able to treat high blood pressure and diabetes, improve strength, and limit stress and ageing are not supported by clinical evidence yet. More human studies are needed to assess the effects of low-deuterium water on human physiology.

    Bottled Water and Plastic Water Bottles: A Comprehensive Overview

    Water that is bottled in plastic is often marketed as being the purest form of drinking water available. Bottled water comes in a range of variations, and offers both benefits and disadvantages to its drinkers.


    Types of Bottled Water

    These are the types of bottled water that you will see most frequently at retail outlets:

    • Still water
    • Spring water
    • Sparkling water
    • Distilled water
    • Mineral water
    • and hydrogen water.

    The Pros and Cons of Bottled Water

    These are the advantages and disadvantages of choosing bottled water for your health.

    The Pros

    • Bottled water is readily available at most supermarkets and retail outlets, making it easy to access and stay hydrated.
    • Bottled water is relatively affordable, especially when purchased in bulk.
    • Manufacturers are required to adhere to consistent quality standards to ensure that their bottled water is pure, safe, and drinkable.
    • Plastic water bottles can be reused for other purposes throughout the home.
    • Bottled water can be stored for long periods of time before consumption, and is great to have on hand during emergency situations.

    The Cons

    • Bottled water stored in plastic for long periods can become contaminated with microplastic particles, xenoestrogens, phthalates and other chemicals that leach into it over time.
    • Exposing plastic water bottles to any sources of direct heat and light may accelerate their degradation and further contaminate the water within them.
    • Plastic water bottles are not biodegradable, and many are not recyclable due to the type of plastic used to manufacture them. Plastic bottles are one of the world’s primary sources of environmental pollution and exert negative effects on animals and ecosystems when they degrade into microplastics.
    • Most bottled water is sold in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles, and PET has been identified as an endocrine disruptor that affects human hormone systems. Other plastic bottles may contain BPA, a compound linked to infertility, cancer, and altered brain development in unborn children.

    Health Concerns Associated with Plastic Water Bottles

    According to research from Orb Media, most bottled water contains microplastic particles – around 50% more microplastics, on average, than clean tap water. Here are some of the most pressing health concerns associated with plastic water bottles.

    Bisphenol-A (BPA) 

    BPA is a common molecule found in plastic bottles, especially those marketed for long term use. It is highly toxic and banned in many nations like China and the European Union for its negative effects on human health. A 2015 study titled, ‘Health risk of exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA)’, summarised the negative effects of BPA on our health, noting that it could be found in plastic bottles, packaging, kitchenware, and even can coatings and jar lids. 

    The study notes that due to BPA’s phenolic structure, it acts as an agonist or antagonist to estogen receptors, disrupting estrogen receptor (ER) dependent signaling pathways. BPA is thus implicated in many endocrine disorders in both males and females, including infertility, early onset puberty, hormone-dependent cancer formation, and polycystic ovarian syndrome or PCOS. 

    Microplastic Contamination

    Water bottled in plastic is very likely to contain varying levels of microplastic particles. According to The Lancet, microplastic consumption is an urgent issue as there is little data available on how it will impact our health in the long term. 

    We do however know that microplastics release the same toxic chemicals as the materials from which they broke off, including BPA, PET, pthalates, and other potent hormone disruptors. Recent clinical studies have found microplastics in human blood, placental tissue and organs. The Guardian notes that scientists now find microplastic particles in over 80% of human subjects tested.

    The Environmental Impact of Plastic Water Bottles

    Harvard University Sustainability notes that there are many good reasons to avoid bottled water, including environmental reasons. The full life cycle of a water bottle requires fossil fuels to produce and recycle – over 17 million barrels of oil each year for the US alone – and this contributes to the climate crisis. Plastic water bottles are a significant source of ecosystem pollution as well, with the Container Recycling Institute stating that 86% of these bottles produced in the US become litter.

    Moreover, Harvard Engineering and Utilities and Poland Springs note that bottled water is around 3,000% more expensive than tap water per gallon. Using a reusable water bottle can be an effective way to save money while still ensuring constant access to clean, fresh drinking water. 

    Alternatives to Plastic Water Bottles

    There are many alternatives to plastic water bottles available today. They come in a wide range of shapes, styles and sizes to suit every need, and are specifically designed to be safely reusable for long periods of time. When looking to choose a plastic water bottle alternative, you will find options that include:

    • Stainless steel water bottles
    • Glass water bottles
    • Copper water bottles
    • Insulated flasks (ideally made of stainless steel and not plastic!)
    • Biodegradable disposable water bottles
    • Silicone water bottles.

    Water and Ageing: The Fountain of Youth?

    It has long been known that maintaining proper levels of hydration in the body plays an important role in slowing and reducing ageing. A 1987 study noted that while a human embryo is around 90% water, a senescent person in their tenth decade of life will only have around 60% of their bodies comprised of water. This loss of body water has significant effects on pathophysiology, making senior citizens more susceptible to dehydration and overhydration. 

    A more recent study assessed health data from 11,255 adults from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study over the course of 30 years. The adults had their blood sodium levels measured throughout the time span, starting during their 40s and 50s and ending at an average age of 76 years. 

    The researchers compared these serum sodium levels with biological ages, and included markers like blood sugar, cholesterol levels and blood pressure. The results were adjusted for factors like race, age, sex, hypertension status, and smoking status.

    According to study author Natalia Dmitrieva, Ph.D, the results of the study showed that proper hydration can slow ageing and help to promote a longer, healthier life. The findings showed that adults with higher levels of sodium in their blood – and lower levels of water – were more likely to be older, biologically speaking, than their peers; suffer from more chronic illnesses; and die earlier in life.

    Hydration Strategies

    Use these science-informed hydration strategies to biohack your water intake and improve your health and longevity.

    How Much to Drink and When

    According to the Mayo Clinic and the US National Academy of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine, you should be consuming:

    • Around 15.5 cups or 3.7 liters of fluids per day if you are an adult man
    • Around 11.5 cups or 2.7 liters of fluid per day if you are an adult woman.

    These recommendations include fluid intake from food, pure drinking water, and other beverages such as tea, coffee and fruit juices. Around 20% of your daily fluid intake will come from your food, on average, and the rest comes from beverages.

    The Mayo Clinic notes that most people can maintain healthy levels of hydration simply by drinking when they feel thirsty. But other people may need to drink more or less than the recommended daily amount specified above.

    Hydration for Athletes

    If you are a professional or vocational athlete or you are very physically active, you will need to adjust your daily fluid intake to meet your increased hydration needs. According to a VeryWellFit medically reviewed article, there is no ideal formula for calculating athlete fluid intake. There is so much variability in athletes’ health statuses, medical conditions, training regimes, and physiologies that each person’s needs will vary widely.

    ACSM and ISSN note that breaking your hydration regime into three separate categories may help. You need to include pre-hydration before exercise, hydration during exercise, and re-hydration post exercise into your schedule to reduce the likelihood of suffering from dehydration or reducing your performance. If you are exercising in hot weather or for periods of longer than 90 minutes, you may also consider adding electrolyte drinks or coconut water to your regime.

    Insights from the Blue Zones

    A recent study conducted by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) proves that consistent hydration plays a vital role in delaying the ageing process. Research shows that proper hydration could slow down biological ageing, reduce the risk of chronic disease, and promote a longer and healthier life. 

    Moreover, the people living in the original blue zones – the homes of the longest-lived human populations on earth – prioritise drinking enough water every day. For instance, the famed Seventh Day Adventists drink 7 glasses of water per day on average, and Blue Zones founder Dan Buettner has also cited clean water as the secret to longevity and health.

    In Summary

    Adequate hydration is crucial for maintaining your health, regardless of whether you are a competitive athlete or a more sedentary white collar employee. Your body needs water to complete all of its essential processes, including ATP production, cellular respiration and waste elimination, to ensure that your cells are powered optimally at all levels of physical activity.

    The type of water you choose to drink can also have remarkable impacts on your health and athletic abilities. Use our guide to biohacking water to optimise your hydration levels, choose the right type of water for your needs, and ensure that the water you are drinking is clean, pure, and supportive of your health and performance. If you can effectively optimise your hydration and electrolyte levels, you will be well equipped to maximise your athletic performance, reduce your healing times, protect your health, and extend your longevity!

    Frequently Asked Questions

    How does drinking water support the human body?

    Our bodies are made up of over 70% water, and virtually all of its critical processes rely on water to function. Water regulates our internal body temperature, keeps our tissues moist, lubricates our joints, carries important nutrients and oxygen to our cells, and assists in eliminating toxins through the excretory system.

    Is tap water safe to drink?

    Tap water is purified in large municipal plants according to fairly strict control standards. However,  these standards do not apply to all contaminants, which means that tap water can contain pollutants. Have your tap water tested or drink filtered water if you are concerned about contamination.

    How much water should the average person drink per day?

    The average adult man should drink 3.7 liters of fluids per day. The average woman should drink around 2.7 liters of fluids. The term ‘fluids’ includes all sources of water in the diet, not drinking water alone.

    Should I drink electrolytes as an athlete?

    Athletes should consider drinking electrolytes alongside their water if they are exercising for periods longer than 90 minutes each, if they are working out at high altitudes, or if they are exercising in hot conditions.

    Is bottled water safe to drink?

    A: Bottled water is usually purified and safe to drink, but plastic bottles can leach microplastics and hormone-disrupting chemicals into the water. Consider using a safer alternative like a reusable water bottle instead.

    Glossary of Technical Terms

    Electrolytes: These minerals carry an electric charge and keep many processes in the human body functioning optimally.

    Dehydration: A state of low hydration levels in the body, which can be dangerous if not corrected.

    Filtration: The process of filtering water to remove contaminants and produce a pure, healthy final product. 

    Ionic substances: Neutral compounds which are composed of ions bonded by electrostatic forces known as ionic bonds.

    H2O: The scientific chemical name for water.

    Hydration: The state of the human body being adequately hydrated, or the process of achieving this level of hydration.

    Hydrogen: Hydrogen is the most abundant chemical in the universe, and also the lightest. It is represented by the symbol H and the atomic number 1, and forms part of water’s molecular structure alongside oxygen.

    Hypertension: A state of high blood pressure in the human body.

    Microplastics: Small, microscopic plastic particles that slough off of larger bodies of plastic and contaminate water, leaching hormone-disrupting chemicals into water supplies.

    Municipal water: Water which is treated, sterilised, and supplied by municipal bodies and organisations to the public.

    Oxygen: This chemical element is represented by the symbol ) and the atomic number 8. It belongs to the chalcogen group, and is a highly reactive, nonmetallic compound that readily forms oxides with other elements and compounds.

    Pathophysiology: The study of abnormal physical states.

    Phthalates: Hormone-disrupting chemicals present in many different types of plastics, including those used to make single use water bottles.

    Potable water: Water that is suitable for human consumption and food preparation purposes.

    Rehydration: The process of drinking more water to replenish the body’s fluid reserves and achieve optimal hydration levels.

    Sodium: Sodium is an important chemical element known as Na with the atomic number 11. It is naturally found in many biotic sources, including the human body, and assists in regulating blood pressure.

    Water: A colourless, odourless, tasteless fluid that is essential for supporting most life on Earth.

    Xenoestrogens: Synthetic estrogens that interfere with mammalian estrogen receptors. They are often released by plastics through the decomposition process.